Tag: glucagon

Obesity and Insulin

We are often asked the question by people professing to want to lose weight how they can best go about it. It seems at times, that most are looking for some type of hack, or gimmick, which comes as no surprise when it appears that weight loss hacks and gimmicks are more prevalent than legitimate weight loss plans.

Hacks and gimmicks may work in the short term, but they will always lead you to failure in maintaining weight loss. They fail you because they are not nutritionally sound. They fail you exactly because hacks and gimmicks are for the short term fix, when what you need is a life long solution! There are no short cuts to having a fit and trim body with a healthy percentage of body fat. Nutritional habits need to be a permanent lifestyle, and not something you just want to get through. It is a sad state of affairs when so many people either do not care what is making them fat, or simply just do not know the cause of their obesity. I blame this largely on our education system where nutrition and health are not subjects taught as they used to be when I was in school. This ignorance of basic nutrition is causing a significant rise not only in obesity, but Type 2 Diabetes too. Sadly, we now have children with Type 2 Diabetes when it used to be that you only heard of adults getting it.  More and more people are developing type 2 diabetes during youth. This trend is growing across all racial and ethnic backgrounds.

34.2 million Americans—just over 1 in 10—have diabetes.

88 million American adults—approximately 1 in 3—have prediabetes.

Nearly 20 percent of children and adolescents are obese, a percentage than has more than tripled since the 1970’s. The recent rise in type 2 diabetes is directly related to the rise in obesity rates in the United States.

Our message is SIMPLE!

Quit eating refined sugar, foods with added sugars, and simple carbohydrates except for fruit.  Cut out processed foods as much as you can, and when you cannot avoid a processed food, be sure to make choices that do not have added sugars, unhealthy fats and preservatives. By doing this and only eating whole foods that are nutritionally dense, you will manage to lose weight down to a healthy level of body fat as long as you are not consuming in excess of your daily needs in calories.

The main obstacle we encounter when telling people to quit eating sugar and simple carbs is society’s ignorance of sugar’s effects and their tendency to ignore what it is they do not want to hear. It is not rare that a person who is obese will also be addicted to sugar and simple carbohydrates. They do not want to hear they need to give up that which is making them fat. The addiction to sugar is really no different than the alcoholics addiction to alcohol. Putting it bluntly, if you are not in the frame of mind to give up sugar in order to improve your weight and health, a half hearted effort at weight loss will only result in failure, more obesity, and at some point a poor nutrition related ailment such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and metabolic syndrome to name a few.

Insulin

Insulin is created and secreted by the pancreas which stores about 200 units of the hormone. People of a healthy weight and good dietary habits will secrete about 25 to 30 units of insulin per day. You might think of insulin as being like a broom, as it sweeps glucose, amino acids and free fatty acids into cells where they are stored as fat and glucose to be used later.

For those at a healthy body fat percentage, blood sugar levels  do not vary much because of the harmonious and compensating actions of insulin and glucagon which is also created by the pancreas. Insulin keeps blood sugar from rising too high, while glucagon prevents blood sugar from falling too low. A healthy and nutritious diet keeps these hormones in harmony with each other. Humans can actually survive without glucagon, but must have insulin on order to survive. For the diabetic, what they need to know and understand is insulin given by injections is not nearly as efficient as the pancreas in supplying a steady stream of insulin for your body’s needs. When you become obese, you stand the risk of becoming insulin deficient or your body becomes insulin resistant. Either way, you are jeopardizing your health and well being. I want to emphasize,

“YOU ARE JEOPARDIZING YOUR HEALTH”.

No one is doing it to you!

After you have consumed carbohydrates, your digestive system breaks down the food. The blood in your intestines will absorb the digested food and as a result your blood sugar will rise. This action stimulates the release of insulin from you pancreas which causes glucose to be stored as fat. Once the blood sugar, or glucose has dropped too low, glucagon is secreted which converts the stored fat into glucose and restores your blood sugar to a normal level. When these two hormones get out of balance, people tend to become obese. Obesity causes increased insulin production as a result of excessive stimulation of the pancreas through over eating. Over eating most often occurs through an over consumption of sugar and simple carbs which only serve to make foods calorie dense and low in nutrition.

Increased insulin levels promote the storage of sugar as glycogen in both the liver and muscle. After proteins and fats are ingested, insulin promotes the storage of protein in muscle and fat in fat cells as triglycerides. Because insulin also prevents the breakdown of glycogen and triglycerides, it becomes almost impossible to lose body fat when your insulin levels are elevated.

Insulin also activates the enzyme, lipoprotein lipase that promotes the removal of triglycerides from the bloodstream and their position in fat cells. Insulin also inhibits hormone sensitive lipase that breaks down stored fats. The net result of these two activities is an increase in stored fat that results in your increased weight and obesity. Insulin is a major hindrance to fat breakdown and is a major facilitator of fat storage. When you are munching away on those cupcakes with icing piled sky high, you are causing your pancreas to pump excessive amounts of insulin. Over time, you may quit producing insulin, or you may become insulin resistant which is a condition where your body has a decreased response to insulin and your fat cells, liver cells, and muscle cells are now insensitive to the circulating insulin in your system.

Obesity is the most common cause of insulin resistance and Type 2 Diabetes. Whether you want to admit it or not, the power is in your control to not be afflicted with either condition. Yet many refuse to give up their sweet treats in exchange for good health. Obese people without diabetes usually have elevated insulin levels with normal blood sugar levels. However, the obese person with high insulin levels may be well on their way to becoming diabetic. What occurs is their pancreas becomes exhausted from constant stimulation by glucose and will eventually fail which results in diabetes. Obese individuals will also often have elevated insulin levels in both the fasting and fed states. These people will also often have elevated lipoprotein lipase levels which is important in the storage of fat. The result of which is the obese individuals are metabolically ready at all times to store fat from everything they consume. It is not rocket science why an obese individual with an elevated insulin level can not lose weight. But, there is something that can be done about this through first making the personal choice to stand with a strong resolve to do so.

What can be done?

  1.  Get more sleep. A good night’s sleep is important for your health. Several studies have also linked poor sleep to reduced insulin sensitivity. For example, one study in nine healthy volunteers found that getting just four hours of sleep in one night reduced insulin sensitivity and the ability to regulate blood sugar, compared to getting eight and a half hours of sleep.
  2. Exercise more. Regular exercise is one of the best ways to increase insulin sensitivity. It helps move sugar into the muscles for storage and promotes an immediate increase in insulin sensitivity, which lasts 2–48 hours, depending on the exercise. A study of overweight men with and without diabetes found that when participants performed resistance training over a three-month period, their insulin sensitivity increased, independent of other factors like weight loss.
  3. Reduce stress. Stress affects your body’s ability to regulate blood sugar. It encourages the body to go into “fight-or-flight” mode, which stimulates the production of stress hormones like cortisol and glucagon. These hormones break down glycogen into glucose, which enters your bloodstream for your body to use as a quick source of energy. Unfortunately, ongoing stress keeps your stress hormone levels high, stimulating nutrient breakdown while increasing blood sugar. Stress hormones make the body more insulin resistant.
  4. Lose weight. Excess weight, especially in the belly area, reduces insulin sensitivity and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. People with prediabetes who lost 5–7% of their total weight over six months reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes by 54% for the next three years.
  5. Eat more fiber. Fiber can be divided into two broad categories — soluble and insoluble. Insoluble fiber mostly acts as a bulking agent to help stool move through the bowels. Meanwhile, soluble fiber is responsible for many of fiber’s associated benefits, like lowering cholesterol and reducing appetite. Several studies have found a link between high soluble fiber intake and increased insulin sensitivity. For example, a study in 264 women found that those who ate more soluble fiber had significantly lower levels of insulin resistance. Soluble fiber also helps feed the friendly bacteria in your gut, which have been linked to increased insulin sensitivity. Foods that are rich in soluble fiber include legumes, oatmeal, flax seeds, vegetables like Brussels sprouts and fruits like oranges.
  6. Eat your fruits and vegetables. Colorful fruits and vegetables are rich in plant compounds that help increase insulin sensitivity. But be careful not to eat too much fruit in a single sitting, as some types are high in sugar.
  7. Watch your intake of carbohydrates. Carbs are the main stimulus that causes insulin blood levels to rise. Reducing your carb intake will help increase insulin sensitivity. That’s because high-carb diets tend to lead to spikes in blood sugar, which put more pressure on the pancreas to remove sugar from the blood. Spreading your carb intake evenly throughout the day is another way to increase insulin sensitivity. Eating smaller portions of carbs regularly throughout the day provides the body with less sugar at each meal, making insulin’s job easier. This is also supported with research showing that eating regularly benefits insulin sensitivity. The type of carbs you choose is also important. Low-glycemic index (GI) carbs are best, since they slow the release of sugar into the blood, giving insulin more time to work efficiently. Carb sources that are low-GI include sweet potatoes, brown rice, quinoa and some varieties of oatmeal.
  8. Quit eating sugar and or foods with added sugars! There’s a big difference between added sugars and natural sugars. Natural sugars are found in sources like plants and vegetables, both of which provide lots of other nutrients. Conversely, added sugars are found in more highly processed foods. The two main types of sugar added during the production process are high-fructose corn syrup and table sugar, also known as sucrose. Both contain approximately 50% fructose. Many studies have found that higher intakes of fructose can increase insulin resistance among people with diabetes. The effects of fructose on insulin resistance also appear to affect people who don’t have diabetes, as reported in an analysis of 29 studies including a total of 1,005 normal and overweight or obese participants. The findings showed that consuming a lot of fructose over less than 60 days increased liver insulin resistance, independent of total calorie intake. Foods that contain lots of added sugar are also high in fructose. This includes candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, cakes, cookies and pastries.

Obesity and insulin levels are within your control if you make the choice to do something about both. We know that insulin is an important hormone that has many roles in the body, and that when your insulin sensitivity is low, it puts pressure on your pancreas to increase insulin production to clear sugar from your blood. Low insulin sensitivity will result in chronically high blood sugar levels, which are known to increase your risk of many diseases, including diabetes and heart disease. Fortunately, there are many things you can do to naturally increase your insulin sensitivity.

You just have to decide which is more important, a cupcake or your health and well being.

Choose wisely!

Are You Nutritionally Apathetic

Truth! If you are not happy with your life, your weight, your lack of success at anything you have a choice to make. You can choose to continue along the same tiresome and difficult path you are currently on, or you can choose to do all that you can in order to change your life for the better. Life is indeed all about the choices we make, you will never improve any aspect of your life when you are too apathetic to learn what it is you need to do in order to move forward for the life you might envy. People complain all the time about not being able to lose weight, but are totally apathetic towards understanding how their nutritional habits keep them fat. There are many who have never learned anything at all about nutrition, and there are others who do understand but just want to be able to eat what they want because it tastes good and gives them a temporary mental boost. The people in the latter category are typically willfully ignorant of how foods affect their bodies. They just do not care that much until they have to go out and buy larger size clothing to wear, or when they are too embarrassed to wear a bathing suit at the beach or pool.

If you are at a point where you truly want a healthier and leaner body, then you must come to understand how your nutrition affects your body. You can try all the gimmicks and fad diets in the world, but the bottom line is, you will not successfully keep off any of your lost weight if you do not adopt healthy nutritional habits for the rest of your life. A diet will typically have a stopping point when you achieve your desired weight, being lean, fit and healthy is a lifetime endeavor which requires a change of lifestyle. You have to work at it, and understand that being apathetic is not going to get or keep you there. You have to understand that as long as you eat crap foods, your hormonal balance will be out of kilter. As long as your nutritional habits keep your hormones out of balance, you are going to suffer from being overweight or obese.

The hormonal effects of your diet.

When you think of hormones does your mind automatically go to sex? Do you understand or know there is more to the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone than fueling your sex drive? Do you know these two hormones play a vital role in maintaining your health too? Are you aware of the other hormones in your body and how your nutrition, or lack thereof, affects your wellbeing?

As significant as they may be, testosterone and estrogen are but two hormones that come as standard issue to all living organisms. Through our work, we have discovered how ignorant a lot of people are when it comes to the crucial role hormones play in their bodies. Most never even give them even a brief consideration until their hormones have affected their health when they are out of balance. Your nutrition has a direct impact on your hormonal balances and these hormones have a direct impact on virtually everything your body does. Your hormones affect your blood sugar along with your basic survival mechanisms involved in stress, fear and even love.  Consume an out of balance diet, and you can expect your hormones to become out of balance, this a simple truth for all.

Your body has what is known as the endocrine system which could be thought of as a communication system for your hormonal responses to stress, fear, love and other emotions. Endocrine hormonal responses can be considered very similar to that of microwave towers or or a fiber optic network.  In your endocrine system, action begins when a secreting gland dispatches a message in the form of a hormone into your bloodstream, which is your body’s version of a fiber optic network. This hormonal message travels through the bloodstream to reach a distant target cell. The cell then receives the message and responds with the appropriate action that has been ordered. For example, insulin is a powerful hormone that your pancreas secretes into your bloodstream. The insulin goes to your liver along with the cells of your muscles. The insulin orders these cells and your liver to snatch glucose from your bloodstream and to store it for later use. As your insulin levels get greater, your blood-glucose levels begin to fall. Once this happens, your brain which requires glucose to function, calls out for more of it. If your brain does not get the glucose it requires, it begins to tune out. This is what we call hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar. You will feel this as a mental fatigue. This is why you crash after eating foods full of simple carbs. You know, like when you have pasta for lunch and then are feeling a bad need for a nap a couple of hours later. If you are carb addicted, you know full well about these afternoon crashes. I can tell you that I know this too well myself as I am carb addicted too.

So, what is it that prevents the liver from replenishing the bloodstream with your body’s stored glucose when hypoglycemia strikes?

High levels of insulin prevent this!

Everyone it seems has heard of insulin, but insulin has a sidekick that is equally as important. Insulin and its sidekick keep each other in balance by having totally opposite physiological effects. Your body’s hormones are not lone Rambo’s, nope, they are almost always paired with with another. Balance is a must if you want to be healthy, fit and trim. You cannot have it any other way, no matter how much you might wish it to be. This balance is going to come from nutrition and exercise! Sitting on your couch eating doughnuts is not going to get nor keep you in balance.

The other hormone that is paired with insulin in glucagon. While insulin drives down your blood sugar level, glucagon has the opposite effect of increasing it. The balancing of these two opposing physiological effects allows your body to maintain a tight control of your blood sugar levels that keeps your brain functioning properly. When you allow the balance of insulin and glucagon to get out of kilter your blood sugar levels are going to be out of whack. If your insulin levels become too high, or your glucagon level too low, you end up with hypoglycemia.

Often, people who eat a calorie dense, low nutrition diet full of simple carbs and refined sugars, they become insulin resistant.  When you become insulin resistant, your blood sugar levels remain too high despite high levels of insulin because your target cells no longer respond to the insulin.  Insulin resistance and the resulting high insulin levels (hyperinsulinemia) lead to the accumulation of excess body fat. Prolonged hyperinsulinemia can, and will, promote diabetes and speed up the development of heart disease.

Is this something you can afford to happen?

Is your life not worth more than the junk foods you consume?

If you cannot afford healthy foods, just how the hell are you going to afford high medical bills?

It is a fools game to consider this all to be just a academic discussion of hormonal biochemistry. This is a topic that should be understood by all, especially if you have brought children into this world. The foods we eat have an exceptionally powerful effect on all of our body’s hormonal responses. Once you understand this, it would be foolish to not consider the value of your nutritional habits.  Food is far more than calories to fuel your body or a mechanism to stop your stomach from grumbling. Food is one of the most powerful drugs you can ever encounter. If your diet is out of balance, your body is out of balance. If your body is out of balance, then your health and well being are going to suffer.  Because insulin drives down blood sugar and glucagon restores it, the ongoing critical balance between these two hormones are necessary for healthy survival. Bear in mind, the release of insulin is stimulated by carbohydrates, especially those like bread, pasta and foods with added sugars that are high on the glycemic index. The release of the insulin balancing hormone glucagon is stimulated by your consumption of protein. If your glucagon levels remain low, and you cannot replenish your blood sugar levels from the stored carbohydrates in the liver, your brain is going to tell you that bag of corn chips, that bowl of ice cream or candy bar looks very enticing. You are going to get that “hangry” craving for junk foods. While these crap junk foods provide immediate energy to your brain, they do nothing but restart the vicious cycle of raised insulin and low glucagon which places you into carbohydrate hell. These cravings are hormonally driven and have nothing to do with your will power, or lack thereof. As long as you are stuck in this diet related cycle, you will simply put, remain fat.

If you are of moderate intelligence, you are only being a fool if you remain apathetic about your nutritional needs.

Only because we have encountered this; you cannot tell me you care about losing weight if you are going to be willfully ignorant of what it takes to not only lose it, but to keep it off.

Apathy will get you nowhere, no matter how much you might protest to the contrary.